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Cessna 210


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The Cessna 210 Centurion is a six-seat, high-performance, retractable-gear single-engine general aviation aircraft which was first flown in January 1957 and produced by Cessna until 1985.

Development

The early Cessna 210 (210 and 210A) had 4 seats with a Continental IO-470 engine of . It was essentially a Cessna 182B to which was added a retractable landing gear, swept tail, and a new wing. In 1961 the fuselage and wing were completely redesigned - the fuselage was made wider and deeper, and a third side window was added. The wing planform remained the same (constant 64" chord from centerline to out, then straight taper to 44" chord at 208 inches from centerline), but the semi-Fowler flaps (slotted, rear-moving) were extended outboard, from Wing Station 100 to Wing Station 122, which allowed a lower landing speed (FAA certification regulations state that a single-engine aircraft must have a flaps-down, power-off stall speed no greater than 70 miles/hour). To compensate for the reduced aileron span, the aileron profile was changed and its chord enlarged. The 1964 model 210D introduced a engine and 2 small child seats, set into the cavity which contained the mainwheels aft of the passengers.

In 1967 the model 210G introduced a cantilever wing replacing the strut-braced wing. Its planform changed to a constant taper from root chord to tip chord. In 1970 the 210K became the first full 6-seat model; this was achieved by replacing the flat-leaf main gear springs with tapered tubular steel springs of greater tread width (which allowed the tires to be nested farther back in the fuselage). In 1979 the 210N model eliminated the folding doors which previously covered the retracted main gears; the retracted tubular springs lie in shallow channels along the bottom of the fuselage and the wheels fit snugly into a closed depression on the fuselage bottom. Some models featured de-icing boots as an option.

The aircraft was offered in a normally aspirated version, designated the model 210, as well as the turbocharged T210 and the pressurized P210 versions.

Succession

Cessna re-introduced three single engine models in 1998 that had been out of production since 1986 - the Cessna 172 , 182 and 206 . The 210 was not reintroduced at that time as it was company policy that all re-introduced aircraft would be recertified to the latest FAR Part 23 standards instead of the original CAR-3 standards. Due to its single spar wing structure, the 210 could not meet the current certification standards. This left a gap in the Cessna line for a high-performance single engine aircraft that was quickly filled by competitors such as the Cirrus SR22 and Columbia 400 . In 2006 Cessna announced that it would produce a new aircraft, known while under development as the Cessna NGP . The intention was that this new aircraft would fill the gap left in the Cessna line when the 210 went out of production in 1986.

In November, 2007, Cessna acquired the assets of Columbia Aircraft Company . The Columbia 350 and 400 models were integrated into the Cessna single engine range and redesignated as the Cessna 350 and Cessna 400 . These aircraft replace the Cessna 210 at the top end of the Cessna single-engine model line.

Modifications

O&N Aircraft offers a turboprop conversion of the Pressurized Cessna P210N known as the "Silver Eagle". This conversion includes an airframe overhaul, airframe modifications, new avionics, new paint and installation of a Rolls-Royce Model 250 powerplant.

The converted 210 will produce climb rates of 2100 ft/min, cruise speeds of 200 - 210 knots and shorter take-off and landing distances, while consuming 20 - 28 gallons of Jet A per hour depending on altitude and air temperature. Range with a full 147 gallons of Jet A is over 1350 nm (1566 miles). As of 2004 65 P210Ns had been converted at a cost of USD $600,000, including USD $350,000 for the engine, plus the cost of the used Cessna 210.

Aerospace Systems and Technologies offers an ice protection system for the Cessna 210, models L, M and N. This system is a TKS technology that "weeps" chemicals which depress the freezing point of water and will both remove accumulated ice and then prevent ice formation. The TKS panels are installed on the leading edges of the wings, horizontal stabilizers and vertical stabilizer. They are complemented by a slinger ring on the propellers and a windshield spray bar.

Introduced in November 2008, the Crownair “Centurion Edition” T210 is a remanufactured aircraft featuring a glass cockpit and new engine along with other minor refinements. The company claims increased payload, cruise speed and range.

Cessna 210s are used in outback Australia for light passenger and cargo charter as well as aerial survey work. Many have suffered as a result of these harsh conditions and have been found to have extensive corrosion on the wing spar carry-through beam. Aeronautical Engineers Australia has consequently conducted an in-depth fatigue analysis to determine safe limits for the salvage of the carry-through, preventing the expensive replacement of the part. This is now available as a CASA approved generic repair.

Variants

The Cessna 210 was manufactured in 26 model variants, The C210, C210A-D, the Centurion C210E-H&J, Turbo Centurion T210F-H&J, the Centurion II C210K-N&R, the Turbo Centurion II T210K-N&R and the P210N&R. The 210N, T210N (turbocharged), and P210N (pressurized) versions were produced in the greatest quantity. The rarest and most expensive models were the T210R and P210R, which were produced only in small quantities in 1985-86.

Several modifications and optional fittings are also available including different engine installations, wing tip tanks, speed brakes, STOL kits and gear door modifications.

The early strut-winged Cessna 210B was developed into a fixed-gear aircraft known as the Cessna 205 . This spawned an entirely new family of Cessna aircraft including the 206 and the eight seat 207 .

210

Four-seat production variant with a Continental IO-470-E engine, 40 degrees hydraulic flap, gear doors, introduced in 1960., first flown in 1957, 575 built.

210A

A 210 with a third cabin window on each side, introduced in 1961, 265 built.

210B

A 210A with a cut-down rear fuselage, a rear vision window and a Continental IO-470-S engine, introduced in 1962, 245 built.

210C

A 210B with some minor changes, introduced in 1963, 135 built.

210D Centurion

A 210C fitted with a Continental IO-520-A engine and increased take-off weight to , introduced in 1964, 290 built.

210E Centurion

A 210D with some minor changes, introduced in 1965, 205 built.

210F Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210E with some minor changes and optional turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-C engine, introduced in 1966, 300 built.

210G Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210F with a strutless cantilver wing and modified rear window, increased take-off weight to , introduced in 1967, 228 built.

210H Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210G with a new flap system and instrument panel, 210 built. Flap range decreased to 30 degrees, fuel capacity increased from . Introduced in 1968.

210J Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210H with reduced wing dihederal, different nose profile and a Continental IO-520-J (or TSIO-520H) engine, introduced in 1969, 200 built.

210K Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210J with rear changed to full seat to provide six seats, a IO-520-L engine with limited to 5 minutes, landing gear changed, enlarged cabin with a single rear side window, weight increased to 3, produced 1970-71, 303 built.

210L Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210K with nose-mounted landing lights, the electrical system changed to 24 volt, the engine driven hydraulic pump replaced with an electrical pump and a three bladed prop fitted. Improved aerodynamics led to an increase in approximately in cruise speed. Produced 1972-76, 2070 built.

210M Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210L with an optional TSIO-520-R engine and minor changes, produced 1977-80, 1381 built.

210N Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210M with open wheel wells for main landing gear and minor changes. Although this change appeared only on the C210N, most early models have had gear doors removed due to extensive maintenance and handling problems, leaving them similar to the "N". Produced 1981-84, 1943 built.

210R Centurion

/ Turbo CenturionA 210N with longer span stabiliser and minor changes, produced 1985-86, 112 built.

P210N Pressurised Centurion

A Turbo 210N with pressurized cabin, four windows each side, with a Continental TSIO-520-AF engine, produced 1978-83, 834 built.

P210R Pressurised Centurion

A P210N with longer span stabiliser increased take-off weight and a Continental GTSIO-520-CE engine, produced 1985-86, 40 built.

Operators

Civil

The Cessna 210 is widely used by flight training schools, private operators, air taxi and commercial charter, and companies.

Military

* Jamaica Defence Force

* Paraguayan Air Force - 2 210N

* Paraguayan Naval Aviation - 2 210N

Accidents and incidents

*While flying N6579X, an early model 210A, famed test pilot Scott Crossfield crashed and died in the woods of Ludville, Georgia on April 19, 2006. The National Transportation Safety Board established the probable cause as "The pilot's failure to obtain updated en route weather information, which resulted in his continued instrument flight into a widespread area of severe convective activity, and the air traffic controller's failure to provide adverse weather avoidance assistance, as required by Federal Aviation Administration directives, both of which led to the airplane's encounter with a severe thunderstorm and subsequent loss of control."